Glenisla (Angus)

Records, sources & information about the Parish of Glenisla

Parish number 290

map of Glenisla

More maps of Glenisla

Births & baptisms
Books & articles
Census records
Church Session
Clock & watch tax
Deaths & burials
Estate records
Farm horse tax
Heritors' records
Land owners
Ministers of the parish
Monumental inscriptions
Old parish registers
Parish Church
Population statistics
Statistical Accounts
Testaments & wills
War memorial


Please also visit the page of general information applicable to all of Angus & Kincardineshire.


NLSNational Library of Scotland
NRSNational Records of Scotland, formerly called the National Archives of Scotland [NAS] and, before that, the Scottish Record Office [SRO]
HM General Register House, Edinburgh EH1 3YY (Tel: +44-131-535-1314)
OPROld Parish Registers of Births/baptisms, Banns/marriages & Deaths/burials (pre-1855)


Books & articles


Statistical accounts of Glenisla


Maps of Glenisla

For the full range of maps of Glenisla, see National Library's Maps.


Photographs of places

See Glenisla - recent photographs of Glenisla. National Grid ref. NO2160.


Glenisla parish church

Located at National Grid ref. NO214604. Built in 1829. Photo.


Parish ministers 1560-1941

It would seem that most of the following were in a hurry to leave Glenisla, one way or another.

adm.: admitted, ass.: assistant, bapt.: baptised, contr.: contract, dem.: demitted, dep.: deposed, ind.: inducted, lic.: licensed, mar.: married, min.: minister, ord.: ordained, pres.: presented, rel.: related, res.: resigned, suc.: successor, test.: testament, tr.: translated

John Smyth1563reader
William Mackie1567-1591reader
William Forbes1606-1613M.A. St Andrews 1587; pres. to vicarage of Kingoldrum 1587, to vicarage of Lintrathen 1603; tr, & adm. bef. 17 Feb 1606; still min. 13 May 1613
George Haliburton1615-1642M.A. St Andrews 1607; adm. ca. 1615; still min. Sep 1642; mar. Janet Ogilvy; issue: George, bishop of Dunkeld; Wm
William Rattray1649-1652M.A.; adm. bef. 5 Jan 1649; tr. to Cargill PER Mar/Apr 1652
David Nevay1659-1686M.A. St Andrews 1644; adm. bef. 15 Oct 1659; still min. Nov 1686; mar. 1670 Cath. Rattray; issue: Isobel (mar. David Farquharson of Pitlochrie); Margaret (mar. James Farquharson)
Allan McLennan1668probably ass.; d. bef. 23 Jul 1668
John Nevay1687-?adm. bef. 15 Mar 1687; d. aft. 1689
William Chapman1700-1717ord. 1700; d. 1717; mar.; issue: Jean (mar. John Auld, merchant, Edinburgh); Margaret (mar. Wm Oliphant, merchant, Edinburgh)
James Fleming1719-1723M.A. St Andrews 1711; ord. 14 May 1719; d. 4 Sep 1723, aged ca. 32
James Mitchell1726-1737ord. 17 Mar 1726; dem. Oct 1737; dep. 17 Apr 1740, for immorality; d. Apr 1742; mar. 1727 Eliz. Reid
William Arthur1741-1757M.A. St Andrews 1727; schoolmaster Meigle; ord. 11 Mar 1741; d. 26 May 1757, aged ca. 50; mar. 1741 Agnes Ferrier; issue: Alexr; Agnes (mar. George Johnstone, min. of Monikie); Wm; Geo.; Christian; John; Janet
Andrew Hutton1757-1762M.A.; ord. 24 Nov 1757; tr. to Cults FIF 28 Oct 1762
Thomas Masson1763-1788M.A.; ord. 11 May 1763; tr. to Dunnichen 31 Jul 1788
James Gowans1789-1790M.A.; ord. 7 May 1789; tr. to Lunan 22 Apr 1790
James Donald1790-1794M.A. Kings Aberdeen 1772; ord. 25 Nov 1790; d. 4 Sep 1794, aged ca. 42; mar. 1791 Eliz. Ogilvie
William Haldane1795-1803ord. 7 May 1795; tr. to Kingoldrum 12 May 1803
George Addison1803-1804ord. 22 Sep 1803; tr. to Auchterhouse 11 oct 1804
Alexander Peat1805-1806b. ca. 1760 Fordoun; M.A. Kings Aberdeen 1780; ass. Kirriemuir; ord. 9 May 1805; d. 30 Apr 1806 unmar.
Andrew Burns1806-1823b. 1774; ord. 25 Sep 1806; d. 1 Mar 1823
James Martin1823-1828M.A.; ord. 16 Sep 1823; dem. 2 Apr 1828 on appointment to Stockbridge Edinburgh
James Watt1828-1848ord. 4 Sep 1828; tr. to Cortachy & Clova 16 Nov 1848
George Gibb1849-1859b. 1794, son of Robt Gibb, brewer; ord. to Thropton Northumberland 1 Jul 1828; tr. & adm. 11 May 1849; d. 23 May 1859; mar. (1) 1825 Helen, dau. of Thomas Rae, Ford, Northumberland; issue: Margaret Rae (mar. William Goldie Boag, min. of Delting SHI); Agnes; Thos; mar. (2) 1846 Eliza Collins, eldest dau. of Capt. William Sword, Leith); issue: Geo.; Robt; Christina Bayne; Mary; Eliza Collins (mar. Edward North, Hawick)
Peter Cameron1859-1865b. 1829, son of Peter C., farmer; ord. Chapelshade 1854; tr. & adm. 8 Sep 1859; d. 23 Oct 1865 unmar.
James Fleming1866-1868M.A.; tr. from Stanley Chapel; adm. 12 Apr 1866; tr. to Kettins 17 Jul 1868
Neil McBride1869-1904b. 1829, son of Matthew McB., innkeeper, Arran; ass. Bothwell, St Giles Edinburgh, St Mary's Edinburgh; ord. 14 Jan 1869; res. 5 Oct 1904; d. unmar. 18 Feb 1913 Arran
John Yuill Walker1905-1909b. 1875 Larbert, son of John W., iron grinder; educ. Falkirk H.S.; ass. St Leonard's, Perth; ord. 10 Feb 1905; tr. to Pathhead East 17 May 1909; tr. to Innerleithen Old 1916; Provost of Innerleithen 1941-47; d. 2 Dec 1951 Innerleithen; mar. 1905 Mary Ann McCowan; issue: John Y., M.B., Ch.B.; Noreen C. (mar. cmdr sir Joseph Fayrer, bart.)
Malcolm Shennan1909-1913ass. Shettleston, Glasgow; ord. 24 Aug 1909; tr. to Whitehill Church, Stepps 18 Jun 1913; dem. 1947; d. 1949 Cadder
Wilfrid James Lewis1913-1926b. 10 Sep 1874 Co. Down, son of James L.; B.A. Trinity Dublin 1908; B.D. Belfast 1913; ass. Rubislaw Aberdeen; ord. Rockcorry 1904; tr. to Islington London 1907; ind. 17 Sep 1913; dem. 21 Apr 1926 on app. to Rosedale, Toronto; d. 5 Jan 1929; mar. 1906 Erna, dau. of Franz Peile; had issue
John Deas Logie1926-1927b. 13 Dec 1868 Buckhaven, son of James L., fisherman; lic. of U.F. Church; ass. at Leith, Falkirk, Paisley and West Calder; tr. from Farr; ind. 15 Sep 1926; tr. to Tower Church, Stanley 8 Sep 1927; d. 10 Aug 1932 Perth; mar. 1905 Frances G. Mitchell
William Wilson1928-1941b. 20 Dec 1867, son of Hugh W., grocer; missionary London 1900; adm. Unity Church Gateshead 1908; ord. Augustine Greenock 19 Jul 1923; tr. & adm. 21 Mar 1928; dem. 21 Sep 1941; mar. (1) 1892 Sarah Philip, dau. of James Graham; issue: Dorothy; Arthur Wm; Helen Mary Graham; mar. (2) 1947 Isabel Beck Burton

Ministers of the Congregational Church in Glenisla

See Congregational ministers in Glenisla.


Monumental inscriptions

Monuments in Glenisla Kirkyard bearing pre-1855 information (ca. 40 stones) are listed in Alison Mitchell (ed.), "Pre-1855 Monumental Inscriptions in Angus, Vol. 1: Strathmore" (Edinburgh: Scottish Genealogy Soc., 1993), which can be bought from the Scottish Genealogy Society. (It's listed as "Angus MI - Vol. 1. Pre-1855 Strathmore" in their online shop.)

Andrew Jervise recorded some monuments at Glenisla in his "Epitaphs & Inscriptions", vol. 2, pp. 251-8.


Glenisla WW1 war memorial

See Photographs & names.


Births, Marriages & Deaths, 1855 to present

Indexes and actual records for Statutory Registers of Births, Marriages & Deaths, beginning 1 Jan 1855, are available online, following registration and the purchase of credits, at the official web-site, ScotlandsPeople.

Births, Marriages & Deaths, before 1855

Indexes and actual records for all extant Old Parish Registers (OPRs) (pre-1855) of the Established Church of Scotland are available online, following registration and the purchase of credits, at the official web-site, ScotlandsPeople.


Church Session Records of Glenisla Parish Church

Nature of recordDatesNRS ref. CH2/589/...
Minutes & accounts1790-18042
Churchyard bookn.d.4
Communion roll1862-19047

Church Session Records of Glenisla Free Kirk
Later United Free, Glenisla North Session, Church of Scotland

Nature of recordDatesNRS ref. CH3/512/...
Deacons' Court minutes1853-19272
Communion roll1849-19416


Glenisla Heritors' records

Nature of recordDatesNRS ref. HR338/...
Minute book1844-19321
Minutes1789, 1812, 1814, 18262
Cash Book1910-19333
Papers re ecclesiastical buildings, etc. (church, manse, school)1790-19224
Papers re transference of property to Church of Scotland General Trustees1926-19275


Land owners

The 4 principal proprietors of land in the parish in 1842:

A further 17 proprietors owned land worth at least £50 yearly in 1842.


Estate records

Papers of Kinoch of Kilrie [Kilry], 1667-1959 - NRS ref. GD1/931


Census records

Records of the official censuses of the parish in 1841, 1851, 1861, 1871, 1881, 1891, 1901, 1911 and 1921 are held in Register House, Edinburgh and are open to the public on payment of a fee.

Indexes to all the original census records, and the records themselves, can be accessed online at modest charge at ScotlandsPeople.

Microfilm copies are also widely available in libraries. The 1881 census is available on CD-ROM.

The early censuses of 1801-31 do not name individuals.


Population statistics

17551852Dr Alexander Webster
17911018Old Statistical Account


Testaments & wills

Glenisla was in the Commissariot of Brechin.

Indexes to all extant pre-1926 testamentary records (wills & inventories of moveable property) can be searched free of charge at ScotlandsPeople. Digital (and paper) copies of the documents can be purchased at that site. See further the introduction to Angus & Kincardineshire at Testaments.

Testaments of Glenisla people from the Register of Testaments of the Commissariot of Brechin, 1576-1823
'T' before the date indicates that the copy in the register is lost, but the original testament is extant.

Beatrix Adamin Meikle Davie, par. of GlenyllaT. 4 May 1659
John Adamin Meikle Derrie, and Janet Nicoll, his spouse, par. of Glenylla26 Oct 1612
Janet Alexanderspouse to John Wilson, in Bellitie, par. of Glenylla12 Oct 1625
Janet Alexanderspouse to John Nicoll, in Cannok, par. of Glenylla17 Aug 1629
John Alexanderin Easter Innerarite, and Janet Clark, his spouse, par. of Glenylay14 Jun 1610
Violet Alexanderspouse of Alexander Wilson, in Cambok, par. of Glenyla13 Aug 1581
William Allanin Newcrage, par. of Glenylla, and Agnes Brew, his spouse22 Aug 1688
William Allanlabourer in Milnacraig10 May 1821
Christian Andrewspouse to John Macnicoll, in Easter Innerraritie, par. of Glenylay14 Jun 1610
James Barnetin Over Drumflogue, par. of Glennylla7 Jul 1621
Patrick Barnetin Little Derrie, par. of Glennyllay17 May 1613
Marjorie Baxterspouse to John Millar, in Kirk- Hillocks, par. of Glenyla21 Aug 1662
John Brabiner alias McAvadinachin Ballamanuch, par. of Glennylla, and Isobel McNicoll, his spouse 7 and 9 Sep 1696
Margaret Breischanespouse to Richard Clerk, in Nether Auchinleiss, par. of Glenyllay13 Sep 1595
David Brown, portioner of Wester Derry12 Jun 1823
James Brucein Forth, par. of Glennylla7 Jul 1621
William Burnein Auchinlish, par. of GlenylaT. 20 Aug 1662
Rev. Andrew Burnsminister at Glenisla14 & 19 Aug 1823
Colin Campbell, portioner of Wester Innerrairitiepar. of Glenylla, and Elspet Suttie, his spouse 28 Jul 1634
Margaret Campbellspouse to umquhile David Ogilvie, of Newton in Glenylle17 Mar 1602
James Cargillin Blackdykes of Incherick, par. of GlenylaT. 14 Mar 1783
John Cargillin Micoll-dorrie, par. of Glenyla19 Jul 1662
John Carmaig or Carmokin par. of Glennayle30 Apr 1579
David Clarkin Newton, par. of Glenilay21 Aug 1662
Isobel Clarkspouse to John Findlow, in Petloche, now in French, par. of Glenyla12 Oct 1625
John Colliein Over Alrick, par. of Glenyla7 Jul 1621
Edward Cookin Dykheid of Crage, par. of Glenylla8 Nov 1637
Janet Cookspouse to James Barnet, in Mekill Derre, par. of Glenylay26 Feb 1614
James Crichtonin Ester Overcraig, par. of Glenilay, and Isobel Ogilvy, his spouseT. 18 Dec 1667
John Crichtonin Drumflogue, par. of Glenyla23 Apr 1621
John Doneldest lawful son to umquhile John Don, in Meikle-Derrie, par. of Glenylla25 Jan 1642
Elizabeth Duncanat Cammock, relict of David Mill, farmer at Wester Ballintore26 Apr 1821
John Edward of Clachnockiterin Glenisla26 Apr 1821
Thomas Edwardsjoint tenant of the farm of Kirkhillocks21 Jul 1819
Helen Eliottspouse to David Barnet, in Lytill Derrie, par. of Glennyllay16 Apr 1614
Marion Ewenrelict of Alexander McIntosh, in Geills wall, par. of Glenilla22 Apr 1714
Lauchlan Farquharson of Wester Cammock19 Aug 1819
William Farquharson elder of Craignidertiepar. of GlenislaT. 18 Dec 1663
Christian Fellspouse to John Erskyne, in New Craige, par. of Glenylla8 Nov 1637
Janet Fentonspouse to John Winter, in Glenmarkie, par. of Glenyla17 Aug 1629
John Fentonin Bellemenay, par. of Glenyla, and Janet Frisell, his spouse25 May 1662
Donald Fergusonin Achinlisch, par. of Glenylla, and Marjori Ogilvie, his spouseT. 18 Dec 1667
Robert Ferguson of Broghdarghpar. of GlenylaT. 24 Mar 1675
Anna Findlayin Tulloche, par. of Glenylla12 Oct 1625
Katherine Findlayspouse to William Beg, in Freuchie, par. of Glenylla17 Aug 1629
Mr James Flemingminister of the Gospel at Glenylla31 Jan 1724
Agnes Fordspouse to John Clark, in Frecaye, par. of Glenyla21 Aug 1662
William Forresterat East mill of Glenylla17 Mar 1774
Bethia Frisell (Fraser)spouse to James Burne, in Dawany, par. of Glenyla21 Aug 1662
Janet Geikieat the Mill of Craig, par. of GlenilayT. 8 Oct 1663
Findlo Grewar, feuar of the Auchtenepar. of Wester Innerraritie, and Janet Kanzow, his spouse, par. of Glenylay14 Jun 1610
John Grewarin Dalvaine, in par. of Glenylla18 Jul 1729
Margaret Grewarspouse to William McNicoll, of Easter Innerhartie, par. of GlenyllaT. -- 1664
Janet Guthriespouse to Alaster Watt, alias Robertson, in Golbertoune, par. of Glennaclo [Glenisla?]T. 6 Dec 1671
John Hall, portioner of Easter Innerraritiepar. of Glenylla, and Elspeth Rattray, his spouse1 Aug 1614
Thomas Hallin Alrick, par. of GlenilayT. 19 Mar 1668
Bessie Herreallspouse to Robert Clark, in Frewche, par. of Glenylla12 Oct 1625
John Hoppertpar. of Glennyla8 Jul 1581
Elspet Hunterspouse to James Robe, in Craiginvitie, par. of Glenyla20 Aug 1662
Agnes Jamie, alias Brucespouse to William Alschender, in Kirkhillokis, par. of Glenylla12 Oct 1625
Thomas Leighton (Lichtoune)in Easter Innerraritie, par. of Glennylla7 Jul 1621
Margaret Lesliespouse to John Hall, in Daldakebok, par. of Glenyla20 Aug 1662
James Lowdonin Ballacks, par. of Glenyla31 Mar 1714
Thomas Lundiein Gobbintore, par. of Glenylla6 Mar 1723
Alexander McIntosh of Kirkhillockpar. of Glenylla16 Feb 1688
Donald Mackenziein Dalchalie, par. of Glenyla, and Janet Campbell, his spouse13 Apr 1678
Elspet McNicollspouse to umquhile William Burne, in Auchinlish, par. of GlenylaT. 20 Aug 1662
James McNicollin Achenrie, par. of Glenyla, and Catherine Souttar, his spouse22 Aug 1688
Margaret McNicollspouse to John Anderson, in Elrik, par. of Glenyla14 Jun 1610
Margaret McNicollspouse to Colin Hall, in Achinleiss, par. of Glenyla5 Jun 1633
William McNicollportioner of Glenmarkie, and Christian Clark, his spouse, par. of Glenyla19 Feb 1631
Isobel Macherrelict of Patrick Williamson, carter in Glennyllay13 Jun 1610
Robert Malcolmat the Wester mill of Glenaclow [Glenisla?]T 19 Jul 1671
Christian Mastertounspouse to John Donn, in Mekill Derie, par. of Glenyla21 Oct 1624 and 17 Nov 1628
Thomas Millpar. of Glenyla21 Aug 1662
Alexander Millarspouse to Janet Laiky, in Cammok, par. of Glenylla5 Dec 1599
James Millarin Kilrie, par. of Glenylla5 Dec 1599
Thomas Mitchellin Wester Ineraritie, par. of Glenyla, and Catherine Grewer, his spouseT. 22 Jul 1662
William Mitchelltenant at Faulds of Derry23 Jul & 6 Aug 1816
David Murrayin Burnhead of Auchranney, par. of GlenyllaT. 18 Dec 1667
Janet Nicollspouse to Thomas Scott, in Cannok, par. of Glenylla17 Aug 1629
John Nicollin Cambock, par. of GlenilyT. 18 Dec 1667
David Ogilvie of Newtounin Glenylla, and Margaret Campbell, his spouse17 Mar 1602
David Ogilvie of Bellitiepar. of Glenyla31 Oct 1621
David Ogilviein Ferter, par. of Glenyla6 Feb 1751
Janet Ogilviespouse to Thomas Olifar, at the West Mill of Glenyla, par. of Glenyla21 Aug 1662
Mary Ogilviespouse to James Tullow, younger, in Mekill Derrie, par. of Glenyla3 Jul 1621
Thomas Ogilvie of East Mill of Glenyla23 Dec 1731
Thomas Ogilvie of East Mill par. of Glenila29 Jul 1765
David Oliverin GlenylaT. 26 Sep 1642
Margaret Patersonspouse to James Clark, in Holmure, par. of Glenylla12 Oct 1625
Margaret Patersonspouse to Charles Grewar, in Wester Innerraritie, par. of Glenylla12 Oct 1625
John Patonin Cottertoune of Kilrie, and Christian Fyffe, his spouse, par. of Glenyla26 Oct 1612
Rev. Alexander Peatminister of the gospel at Glenisla20 Mar 1807
Janet Peddiespouse to John Bruce, in Cannok, par. of Glennylla17 Aug 1629
Christian Pressanespouse to John Bruce, in Alrick, par. of Glennylla25 Apr 1626
Janet Pressanespouse of Robert Robesoune, par. of Glennyla6 Jul 1581
John Pressanein Burnsyde of Achnarie, par. of Glennyllay26 Nov 1613
Agnes Ramsayspouse to Thomas Smith, in Indorraute, par. of Glenyla19 Dec 1662
Helen Ramsayspouse to David Ogilvie, apparent of Newtoun, par. of Glenyla25 Feb 1629
Margaret Ramsayspouse to Andrew Butter, in Goventar, par. of GlenillaT. -- 1654
Francis Rattray of Eastmillin Glenisla26 Apr 1821
John Rhindin Innerraritie, and Elspet Ramsay, his spouse, par. of Glenyla21 Oct 1612
Janet Robbspouse to John Aleschender, in Dykhead, par. of Glenyla12 Jul 1621
John Robbcotter in Cragmale, par. of Glenylla17 Aug 1629
Agnes Robertsonin Dunne of Glenylay13 Jun 1610
Alaster Robertsonin Gobintore, par. of GlenylaT. 22 Jun 1675
Donald Robertsonlate in Tulloch, par. of Gleniela14 Aug 1770
John Robertsonin Drimflogne, and Bessie Mathie, his spouse, par. of Glenylay21 Aug 1610
John Robertson,in Little Darie, par. of GlenyllaT. 18 Dec 1667
Duncan Shaw*in Baloch of GlenyleT. 16 Mar 1782
Alexander Shepherdin Easter Craigie, in the par. of Glenyla, and Isobel Oliver, his spouse23 Dec 1693
John Smartin Frewchie, in the par. of Glenyla4 Jul 1683
Margaret Smythspouse to umquhile Duncan Findlow, in Alrik, par. of Glenylla15 Mar 1637
Christian Spaldingspouse to John Michell, in Mylntone of Glennyllay27 Jun 1610
John Spaldingin Drumflogue, par. of Glenyla12 Jul 1621 and 17 Nov 1628
William Spalding of Broomhall31 Oct 1818
John Stewartin Alrick, par. of Glenylla11 Dec 1760
Isobel Storrer spouse to Alexander Carmaige, in Drumflogne, par. of Glennylla6 Dec 1610
John Storrerin Over Crage, par. of Glennyllay4 Feb 1612
John Thomsonin Lytill Dorrie, and Bessie Meik, his spouse, par. of Glenylay22 Aug 1610
Katherine Tulloch spouse to John Baxter, portionerof Kirkhilloks, par. of Glenyla21 Oct 1612
Adam Valentine in Drumhead, par. of Glenyla20 Aug 1662
James Wattin Sturt, par. of Glenylie, and Elspet Ogilvie, his spouse30 Nov 1680
John Watt in Sturt of Glennylla, and Margaret Ogilvie, his spouse8 Mar 1693
John Whitein Little Kilrie, and Janet Smart, his spouse, par. of Glenylla8 Nov 1637
James Williamson (or Wilson)in Auchinlish, par. of Glenylla, and Agnes Burne, his spouse10 Aug 1662
Patrick Williamsonin Freuchie, par. of Glenylay26 Jun 1610

* testament testamentar; his 3rd son, William, and his 4th son, John, said to have been nominated by him as executors, but the will itself is apparently lost; also mentions a James Shaw

Testaments of Glenisla people from the Register of Testaments of the Commissariot of Edinburgh, 1514-1600

Andro Adamin Litill-Darye, par. of Glen-Ilay in Angus1 Feb 1581-2
Captain David Crichton of Eister-Craigpar. of Glenilay in Angus21 Jul 1586
John Gibbon, portioner of Auchinleisswithin Glen-Ilay18 Apr 1590
John Grewarin Dowaneie, par. of Glen Ilay in Angus26 Dec 1588
Isobel Laingrelict of Andro Adam, in Darie, par. of Glen-llay, in Angus13 Dec 1591
Eufame Wischartsometime spouse to John Ogilvie, of Frewchie, par. of Glenylay, sher. of Forfar8 Jun 1596

Testaments of Glenisla people from the Register of Testaments of the Commissariot of Edinburgh, 1601-1700

Bessie Annandand David Ramsay, minister at Aleyth and Glen-Ilay, her spouse, sher. of Perth18 May 1603

Testaments of Glenisla people from the Register of Testaments of the Commissariot of Edinburgh, 1701-1800

Alexander Ogilvielate of East Milns of Glenisla, in Forfarshire, and surgeon lately outward bound on board the merchant ship "Chance", Captain Chicoman, commander20 Dec 1771


Clock & watch tax, 1797-8

Images of the original records for Glenisla:

NRS ref. E326/12/2/45


Farm horse tax, 1797-8

Images of the original records for Glenisla:


This page updated 16 Sep 2022