Mains and Strathmartine (Angus)

Records, sources & information about the Parish of Mains and Strathmartine

Parish number 307

map of Mains and Strathmartine

More maps of Mains and

Births & baptisms
Books & articles
Census records
Church Session
Clock & watch tax
Deaths & burials
Farm horse tax
Heritors' records
Land owners
Ministers of the parish
Monumental inscriptions
Old parish registers
Parish Church
Photographs of places
Places of interest
Population statistics
Statistical Accounts
Testaments & wills


The parishes of Mains and Strathmartine were united on 21 Nov 1792. Anciently, Mains was called Strathdichty Comitis or Earl's Strathdichty; Strathmartine (or Strickmartine) was called Strathdichty Martin. The Dichty Water flows through the parishes.

Please also visit the page of general information applicable to all of Angus & Kincardineshire.


NLSNational Library of Scotland
NRSNational Records of Scotland, formerly called the National Archives of Scotland [NAS] and, before that, the Scottish Record Office [SRO]
HM General Register House, Edinburgh EH1 3YY (Tel: +44-131-535-1314)
OPROld Parish Registers of Births/baptisms, Banns/marriages & Deaths/burials (pre-1855)


Books & articles


Statistical accounts of Mains & Strathmartine


Maps of Mains & Strathmartine

Map of Mains and Strathmartine

Above: a modern street map of the north of Dundee, with approximate boundaries of the parishes of Mains and Strathmartine added
This map is an adaptation of material that is © OpenStreetMap contributors, and is released under CC-BY-SA

For the full range of maps of Mains & Strathmartine, see National Library's Maps.


Recent photographs of places
Not many people seem interested in photographing this area!

Photographs of Mains. National Grid ref. NO4132.

Photographs of Trottick and Claverhouse. National Grid ref. NO4033.

Photographs of Kirkton of Strathmartine - now called Bridgefoot. National Grid ref. NO3735.


Parish churches

The ruins of Mains Kirk are at National Grid ref. NO411331, beside Mains Castle. The mediaeval kirk was dedicated to St Ninian and granted to the Abbey of Arbroath by Gillechrist earl of Angus.

Strathmartine Kirk, at Kirkton of Strathmartine (now called Bridgefoot), at NO378352, built in 1779, was demolished in 1799.

The kirk built after 1799 at Trottick, in the south-east corner of the junction of the Old Glamis Road and Claverhouse Road, at NO402336, served the united parishes of Mains & Strathmartine.


Parish ministers of Mains, 1560-1792, Mains & Strathmartine 1792-1945

adm.: admitted, ass.: assistant, bapt.: baptised, contr.: contract, dem.: demitted, dep.: deposed, ind.: inducted, lic.: licensed, mar.: married, min.: minister, ord.: ordained, pres.: presented, rel.: related, res.: resigned, suc.: successor, test.: testament, tr.: translated

Ninian Hall1563exhorter
William Auchmowtie1568-1572M.A.; adm. Aug 1568 with Lundie also in his charge; tr. to Strathmartine 1572
Ninian Cook1572reader
Alexander Tyrie1574-ca. 1581tr. from Meigle PER 1574; had Strathmartine, Auchterhouse and Tealing also in charge; tr. to Auchterhouse bef. 1582
Alexander Graham1575vicar
William Bruce1585reader; pres. to vicarage 21 Feb 1588-9 on death of Alexr Graham
William Rait1590-1593, 1595-ca. 1632min. 1590; tr. to Lundie 1593; tr. to Strathmartine 1594; returned here 1595; had Strathmartine also in charge 1612; d. 5 Oct 1630 x 19 Feb 1633; mar. Janet Lundie; issue: David, min. of Kinnaird (by Farnell); Harry; Margaret
Henry Fithie1633-16492nd son of James Fithie, skinner, merchant burgess of Dundee and Anna Thain; M.A. St Andrews 1621; adm. to Benvie 25 Mar 1627; pres. 19 Feb 1633; dep. 1649; d. bef. 1 May 1655; mar. Isobel Erskine; issue: Henry (d.y.); Mr James, min. here
Henry Auchenleck1652-1662ord. 14 Oct 1652; tr. to 2nd charge Perth 23 Dec 1662
James Fithie *1663-1672b. ca. 1630, son of above Henry F.; M.A. St Andrews 1650; ord. May 1663; d. 23 Jun 1672; mar. 1654 Martha (who survived him), dau. of David Souter, alias Johnston, of Wardmilne, Arbroath; issue: Henry; John; Isobel (mar. James Ramsay, town clerk of Dundee); Christian (mar. George Crockat); David; Henry; James, Martha, Robert
Patrick Strachan1673-1701b. ca. 1650, son of James Strachan in Carmyllie; M.A. St Andrews 1669; adm. 16 Mar 1673; dep. 23 Oct 1701 for contumacy, but remained till 1707; d. aft. 1710; buried Perth; mar. (1) 1675 Margaret Morton; issue: John, Geo.; mar. (2) Lucrese, eldest dau. of Arthur Granger, min. of Panbride
James Hodge1707-1709ord. 6 Mar 1707; tr. to Longforgan PER 5 Oct 1709
Andrew Ronaldson1710-1722M.A. St Andrews 1696; ord. 25 Oct 1710; d. Jan/Feb 1722, aged ca. 46; mar. 1704 Margaret, dau. of Wm Hackstoun, tailor, Edinburgh; issue: Helen (mar. John White, shoemaker, Dundee); Agnes; Florence (mar. James Donaldson, shoemaker, Edinburgh); Andw; Margaret; 2 others
John Ker1723-1759b. ca. 1693, bro. of Thomas Ker, min. of Balmerino FIF; M.A. St Andrews 1713; chaplain to Sir John Sinclair of Stevenson; ord. 6 Feb 1723; d. 30 Jun 1759; mar. 1726 Eliz. Campbell; issue: Ann, Thos, Eliz., Margaret
John Gibson1760-1795b. 1732, son of John G., farmer, Pettinain LKS; ord. 12 Mar 1760; d. 9 Feb 1795; mar. 1766 Euphemia Halliburton; issue: Agnes (mar. Patrick Macvicar, min. of 3rd charge Dundee)
Alexander Strachan1795-1799b. 6 Sep 1747, son of James S., min. of Kinkell ABD; M.A. Marischal 1766; schoolmaster Dun; ord. to Strathmartine 19 Jan 1775; removed to Mains on union 21 Nov 1795; d. 24 Feb 1799; mar. (1) 1771 Jean Fullerton; issue: Margaret; James, M.D., Mauritius; Mary; Jean (mar. James Burnet, merchant, Arbroath); mar. (2) 1781 Eliz. Mitchell; issue: Wm; Eliz.; Nancy Adamson; Euphemia; Janet; Isabella [M.I. to her in Dean Cemetery, Edinburgh]; Lilias
Francis Nicoll1799-1820M.A.; tr. from Auchtertool FIF; adm. 19 Sep 1799; tr. to St Leonard's FIF 20 Jul 1820
David Cannan1820-1848b. 1774 Kells KKD, son of James C., farmer; ord. to Kirriemuir 24 Mar 1803; tr. to Murroes 3 Aug 1809; tr. & adm. 16 Nov 1820; D.D. St Andrews 1828; dem. 28 Jun 1848; d. 12 Jul 1854 Edinburgh; M.I. in Dean Cemetery Edinburgh; mar. 1804 Margaret Ouchterlony, dau. of James Lowe, Trinidad; issue: James; Joseph; Mary; Francis Nicoll, min. of Lintrathen; Robt, lieut.-gen. in Turkish service; John, surveyor, Australia; Peter; Helen (mar. James Forgan, writer, Dundee); Thos, planter, Mysore; David; Alexr, capt., H.E.I.C.S.
John Robertson1848-1858ord. 21 Sep 1848; tr. to St Mungo's Glasgow 24 Jun 1858
John McMurtrie1858-1866M.A.; ind. 2 Sep 1858; tr. to St Bernard's Edinburgh 11 Jan 1866
William Boyd1866-1873b. 30 Oct 1840 Dundee, son of John B., farmer; M.A. St Andrews 1860; ass. Leslie FIF; ord. 19 Apr 1866; d. 2 Apr 1873 Florence; mar. 1866 Janet Lockie, dau. of David Runciman, D.D., min. of St Andrew's Glasgow; issue: Janet Aitchison; John James; David Runciman
Alexander Stewart1873-1882M.A., D.D.; ord. 18 Sep 1873; res. 4 Nov 1882 on appointment as prof. of systematic theology, Aberdeen
Richard Spittal Ritchie1888-1917b. 27 Apr 1859 Moonzie FIF, son of Wm Spittal & Cath. Ritchie; ord. to Sorn AYR 21 Jul 1885; tr. & adm. 21 Nov 1888; d. 18 Apr 1917; mar. 1891 Sophia Playfair, dau. of Andrew Chrystal (son of James C., D.D., min. of Auchinleck AYR); issue: Sophia Playfair; Shina Fowler; Eliza Chrystal; Cath. Giffen
Alexander Anderson1918-1925b. 15 Oct 1876 Fraserburgh ABD, son of Alexr A.; M.A. Aberdeen 1899; B.D. St Andrews 1906; ass. to prof. of Hebrew, St Andrews; ass. Uddingston; ord. to St James's Kirkcaldy FIF 24 Jan 1912; tr. & adm. 20 Feb 1918; dem. 25 Nov 1925; adm. Robertson Memorial Glasgow 12 Jan 1928
John Sinclair1926-1945tr. from Lundie 14 Apr 1926; dem. 1 Oct 1945; mar. x 2 & had issue

* The Fasti mistakenly list him as being twice married, but Martha Souter and Martha Johnston were the same woman - see Note for Mr John Souter, alias Johnston, of Wardmilne, minister of Barry, Martha's brother.

Parish ministers of Strathmartine 1567-1795

Thomas Cumming1562-1566vicar
James Weicht1563-1572exhorter 1563; min. 1567; d. Aug 1572
Thomas Morrison1568pres. to vicarage 14 May 1568 on death of James Tyrie
William Auchmoutie1572-?adm. to Mains Aug 1568; tr. & adm. 1572; pres. to prebend of quarter of parsonage 20 Mar 1572-3 on death of Sir James Weicht
David Tyrie1572reader
William Rait1594-1612tr. from Lundie 1594; removed to Mains 1595 but retained this charge till aft. 23 Apr 1612
William Rollock1620-1623M.A. St Andrews 1620; adm. bef. 2 Oct 1620; d. 1623, aged ca. 24; prob. mar. 1623 Elspeth Rollo
David Jameson1626-1637M.A. St Andrews 1612; adm. bef. 6 Sep 1626; d. aft. 8 Aug 1637, aged ca. 45; mar. Margaret Hay, who survived him
Alexander Ramsay1638-1649son of Alexr Ramsay in Gedhall; M.A. St Andrews 1625; adm. ca. 1638; dep. Sep 1649; issue: Marjory
James Fraser of Kirkton1653-1653adm. bef. 24 Jan 1653; tr. to Arbroath 21 Jul 1653
John Mow1655-1663adm. bef. 8 Dec 1655; still min. 3 Feb 1663
David Fergusson1664-1689?son of David F., burgess of Dundee; gt-gson of David F., min. of Dunfermline FIF; M.A. St Andrews 1648; adm. bef. 18 May 1664; still min. 6 Feb 1689; d. bef. 29 Jun 1696; mar. Barbara Pierson; issue: David, writer
Thomas Ogilvie1697-1703ord. 13 May 1697; tr. to Coupar Angus 18 May 1703
James Goodsir1706-1717ord. 12 Dec 1706; tr. to Monikie 12 Feb 1717
William Thomson1718-1743ord. 24 Apr 1718; d. 26 Jan 1743; mar. Helen, dau. of William Ged, merchant, Edinburgh
Hugh Maxwell1744-1751descendant of the Maxwells of Tealing; M.A. St Andrews 1702; ord. to Tealing 29 Jul 1703; tr. to Forfar 21 Mar 1717; tr. & adm. 27 Jun 1744; d. 30 Jan 1751, aged ca. 69; mar. (1) 1703 Margaret Kinloch; issue: David, min. here; Robt, of Halkerton; Geo., of Balmyles, provost of Dundee; Isobel; Janet (mar. Wm Moncrieff, min. of Kinnell); mar. (2) contr. 1724 Kath., dau. of Sir Alexr Brand of Brandsfield, Edinburgh; mar. (3) 1745 Kath., dau. of Mungo Murray, collector for Perthshire; mar. (4) Anne Dalgleish
David Maxwell of Strathmartine1751-1774b. 1704, son of above; M.A. St Andrews 1725; ord. to Eassie 22 Apr 1733; tr. & adm. 14 Nov 1751; d. 6 Jun 1774; mar. 1737 Isabel, 2nd dau. of Alexr Duncan of Lundie; issue: Isabella (mar. James Morison of Naughton & Strathmartine); Cath.; Janet; Anne (mar. Capt. Charles Bell); Helen (mar. George Blair of Adamstone); Mary; Lilias
Alexander Strachan1775-1795M.A.; ord. 19 Jan 1775; removed to Mains on union of parishes 1795; see above list for ministers of Mains & Strathmartine


Monumental inscriptions

Monuments in Mains Kirkyard and at Trottick bearing pre-1855 information are listed in Alison Mitchell (ed.), "Pre-1855 Monumental Inscriptions in Angus, Vol. 4: Dundee" (Edinburgh: Scottish Genealogy Soc.), which can be bought from the Scottish Genealogy Society. (It's listed as "Angus MI - Vol. 4. Pre-1855 for Dundee and Broughty Ferry" in their online shop.)

Mains Churchyard [old photo] is close to Mains Castle, within Caird Park, Dundee.

Andrew Jervise recorded some monuments at Mains in his "Epitaphs & Inscriptions", vol. 1, pp. 302-3 and at Strathmartine on pp. 204-6 of that volume.

Monuments in the surviving, southern part, of Strathmartine Kirkyard bearing pre-1855 information (ca. 40 stones) are listed in Alison Mitchell (ed.), "Pre-1855 Monumental Inscriptions in Angus, Vol. 3: Environs of Dundee" (Edinburgh: Scottish Genealogy Soc., 1996), which can be bought from the Scottish Genealogy Society. (It's listed as "Angus MI - Vol. 3. Pre-1855 Environs of Dundee" in their online shop.) The northern part has been built over.

The following is one of the inscriptions in Strathmartine Kirkyard. [M1], etc., indicate Mitchell's numbering:

[M33] Memento mori Here lyes THOMAS SHEPHERD son to THOMAS SHEPHERD and ISABEL BROUN in Strathmartine who departed May 26 1705 and of his age 22 ; TS IB


Births, Marriages & Deaths, 1855 to present

Indexes and actual records for Statutory Registers of Births, Marriages & Deaths, beginning 1 Jan 1855, are available online, following registration and the purchase of credits, at the official web-site, ScotlandsPeople.

Births, Marriages & Deaths, before 1855

Indexes and actual records for all extant Old Parish Registers (OPRs) (pre-1855) of the Established Church of Scotland are available online, following registration and the purchase of credits, at the official web-site, ScotlandsPeople.


Church Session Records of Mains Parish Church
Later, of Mains & Strathmartine Church Session
Original records are held by Dundee City Archives; repertory is available at NRS ref. CH2/23/...; digital images are available on personal visit to NRS.

Nature of recordDatesDCA ref. CH2/256/...
Minutes & accounts1851-19153
Minutes (as board of health in cholera outbreak)1831-18334
Roll of male heads of families1834-18414
French exercisesca. 18704
Pamphlet - History of Mains Parish Church, by Gordon Kiernan19786
Minutes (confidential)1904-191411
Scroll minutes1903-190812
Communion roll1857-186015
do1891-1943 (with gaps)17 to 29
Cash books1908-197830 to 35
Seat rents1934-194436
Misc. papers of the Rev. R. Spencer Ritchie, min.1888-191739

Church Session Records of Mains & Strathmartine Free Church
Later, United Free; united with Downfield North in 1941
Records are in Dundee City Archives, possibly as DCA ref. GD/X100/2

Nature of recordDatespreviously NRS ref. CH3/1592/...
No info available on contents


Mains & Strathmartine Heritors' records

Nature of recordDatesNRS ref. HR439/...
Minute book1891-19101
Papers re ecclesiastical buildings, etc. (glebe)1910-19224
Papers re transference of property to Church of Scotland General Trustees1926-19295
Standing orders of St Andrews Provincial Committee for Training of Teachers19106


Land owners

There were 2 heritors of the parish of Strathmartine in 1790:

There were 10 proprietors of land worth at least £50 per annum in the united parish in 1833, including:


Census records

Records of the official censuses of the parish in 1841, 1851, 1861, 1871, 1881, 1891, 1901 and 1911 are held in the New Register House, Edinburgh and are open to the public on payment of a fee.

Indexes to all the original census records, and the records themselves, can be accessed online at modest charge at ScotlandsPeople.

Microfilm copies are also widely available in libraries. The 1881 census is available on CD-ROM.

The early censuses of 1801-31 do not name individuals.


Population statistics
For Mains:

1755Dr Alexander Webster
1790Old Statistical Account

For Strathmartine:

1755368Dr Alexander Webster
1790340Old Statistical Account

For Mains & Strathmartine:

17551077Dr Alexander Webster
1790Old Statistical Account


Testaments & wills

Mains & Strathmartine were in the Commissariot of St Andrews.

Indexes to all extant pre-1926 testamentary records (wills & inventories of moveable property) can be searched free of charge at ScotlandsPeople. Digital (and paper) copies of the documents can be purchased at that site. See further the introduction to Angus & Kincardineshire at Testaments.

Testaments of Mains & Strathmartine people from the Register of Testaments of the Commissariot of St Andrews, 1549-1823

Peter Adamtenant in Bridgend of Strathmartin29 Mar 1815
Thomas Alexander at the Milne of Mains6 Nov 1592
Janet Badspouse to Robert Keill, in Westmuir, par. of Maynes27 Apr 1614
David Baxterin Magdalen Kirktoun, par. of Maynes22 Oct 1681
William Batchlerin Bakmure of the Mains of Stradichty3 Jul 1598
James Batschilviein Hill of Mains11 Jun 1606
Jean Butchartsometime spouse to John Smart, at the East Barns of Powrie, par. of Maynes17 Jul 1620
Alexander Clementin Kirktoun of Strikmartin23 Feb 1676
Catherine Clerkin Cottertoun of Claverhouse, par. of Symmevey [?], spouse of William Davidson, cotterman11 Jul 1598
Walter Clogstounecotterman in Claverhouss, par. of Mains2 Nov 1620
John Constableshepherd in the Mains of Fentrie, par. of Mains8 Apr 1598
Christian Crombiespouse to William Constable, in Quheitfeild, par. of Maines23 Feb 1619
Janet Duncanspouse to Thomas Wolom, in Cottoun of Strikmartyn10 Nov 1613
Margaret Eldersometime spouse to John Craig, cotterman in Bridge of Achrie, par. of Strikmartene14 Jan 1600
Thomas Fermourin Coattown of Strathmartine3 Sep 1712
Mr James Fythie minister at the Mains16 Nov 1672 and 6 Dec 1683
Alexander Gibbin the Cottertoun of the East Mains, par. of Mains11 Feb 1676
Captain James Grahame of Labbothiepar. of Maynes15 Aug 1627
Andrew Grayin Cottertoun of Balgray, par. of Mains2 Sep 1710
Thomas Greigin Kirktoune of Mains31 Aug 1606
Bessie Guildspouse to Andrew Matho, Balmadon, par. of Strikmartyn9 Feb 1607
Thomas Guildin Muircranks, par. of Erlisstradichty5 Apr 1596
Thomas Honeybleacher at Hanna-green, near Mains of Fintry, par. of Mains18 Mar 1779
David Husbandsmith in the Hill of the Mains, sher. of Forfar23 Mar 1648
William Husbandservant to Sir William Ogilvy, bart., Bankhouse of Baldovan5 & 10 Mar 1823
Alexander Kinnearsometime in Balkemback, thereafter in Hill of Mains, par. of Mains20 Apr 1770
Jean Kinnearspouse to Peter Forthringham, in the Hill head of Claverhouse, par. of Mains12 Oct 1681
Rear-Adm. David Laird of Strathmartine6 Mar 1815
William Butler Laird, yr of Strathmartin24 Dec 1810
George Lowat the Heirstane milne, par. of Mains31 Mar 1600
Agnes Lundiesometime spouse to Sir William Grahame of Claverhouse, knight, par. of Maynes26 Mar 1614
James Marshallservant to William Dick, Pittempton Mains30 Jul 1806
James Millarsometime cotterman in the Cottertoun of Strikmartein31 Mar 1600
Thomas Millarat Strakmertine-milne, par. of Strickmertine26 Jun 1619
Patrick Milnesometime cotter-man in Baldovane, par. of Strikmertin31 Mar 1600
Thomas Mitchelltenant and gardener in Conbywood, par. of Mains31 Oct 1785
James Mortimertenant in Ballmoor, par. of Mains of Angus26 May 1717
Margaret Mudiein Strikmartene22 Feb 1600
Andrew Mylneschoolmaster at Strickmartine6 May 1708
William Nairne of Baldovinpar. of Strathmartine9 Dec 1719
Thomas Ogilviesometime in Mid Campsy, and Dighty Water, Strickmartine23 Feb 1801
Sir John Ogilvy of Inverquharity, bart.residing at Bankhouse, par. of Strathmartin10 & 12 Sep 1821
Peter Paterson (Patrick Paterson)tenant in Hillhouses, par. of Strathmartin26 Apr 1811
Isobel Petriein Cottoun of Badragone, par. of Strikmartyne12 Aug 1598
William Petriein Piteragone, and Margaret Heringe, his spouse, cotters, par. of Strikmertein18 Mar 1600
Janet Raespouse to David Watsoune, in Bakmuir of Maines, par. of Maines19 Aug 1618
Andrew Richardsonin the Hill of Maynes, par. of Maynes14 Mar 1614
Walter Robertsonin the Myln of Balmuir, par. of Mains31 Oct 1674
Ann Salterdaughter of the deceased David Salter, tenant in Miln of Trotick, par. of Mains10 Jun 1786
David Salter sometime tenant in Mill of Trotick, par. of Mains10 Jun 1786
David Salterlawful son of the deceased David Salter, sometime tenant in Miln of Trotick, par. of Mains10 Jun 1786
Gilbert Sellarat the Milne of Mains, par. of Mains21 Aug 1617
Elspet Smithsometime spouse to Andrew Elder, brabonar at Brigend of Achrie, par. of Strikmartin14 Jan 1600
Walter Smithtailor, dwelland in Kirktoune, par. of Mains13 Jan 1596-7
John Steel of Leitfiepar. of Strathmartine7 Oct 1780
Margaret Stevensonsometime spouse to David Watson, in Backmuir, par. of Mains6 May 1606
Mr Alexander Strachan minister of Strathmartine and Mains19 Mar 1800
James Thayneat the Mylne of Fallawes, par. of Strikmarten29 Nov 1627
James Thaynesometime tenant at Strathmartine, Forfar22 Jan 1718
John Thayneat Bandiveain, par. of Straikmairtyne13 Sep 1621
Thomas Thaynein Hilhous, par. of Strikmartine18 Apr 1626
James Thomtenant in Lioch, par. of Strathmartin29 Mar 1717
James Thomson in Hilhouse, par. of Strikmartine5 Mar 1702
Matilda Vaimandin Bakmure of Manis of Stradichtie, relict of William Baitchlar3 Jul 1598
David Walkertenant in Cottoun of Strathmartine13 Mar 1745
David Walls or Walliswobster in Balgray, par. of the Mains of Stradich17 Apr 1598
David Weirin Baldrygan, par. of Strikmartin30 Aug 1682
Elspet Whitein Strikmartin, spouse of John Walker18 Mar 1600
Patrick Wintoun of Kirkmartine11 Apr 1673
Patrick Wintoun of Strickmartine19 Feb 1695

Testaments registered at St Andrews that have been lost, for which only entries in the minute books are extant.

Andrew Brownwaiter in Hill of Mains, par. of Mains3 May 1732
Walter Lorimersometime at Glammer at Glamis, and last in par. of Mains24 Jul 1766
Robert Mathesonwright at Robbertsmiln, par. of Mains1 Aug 1733
Margaret Thainat Baldovan, par. of Strathmartine19 Oct 1726

Testaments of Mains & Strathmartine people from the Register of Testaments of the Commissariot of Edinburgh, 1601-1700

James Thanein Potteinpane, par. of Strikmertyne, in Angus11 Feb 1609
David Thomsonin the Kirktoun of Strikmertyne, in Angus15 Jul 1608


Clock & watch tax, 1797-8

Images of the original records for Mains and for Strathmartine:

NRS ref. E326/12/2/59


Farm horse tax, 1797-8

Images of the original records for Mains:

Images of the original records for Strathmartine:


Places of interest



This page updated 28 May 2021